The searchable Collection of Public Newspapers for the years 1809-1899 at the Brooklyn Public Library was an invaluable historical resource for researching this topic. Specific sources are noted in the body of this article.

Steel Rails to the Sunrise: The Long Island Rail Road, by Ron Ziel and George Foster, again has proved its value by distilling and extending the research of late Long Island historian Vincent F. Seyfried through a rich, well-illustrated, and concise text.

David D. Morrison’s monograph Long Island Railroad Turntables was an important source of information. It can be viewed online at

The Wikipedia Entry for Elias Hicks is both fascinating and enlightening.

Also enlightening are articles published in 1830 in the Philadelphia Society of Friends (i.e., Quaker) publication The Friend, or Advocate of Truth, written subsequent to the death of Elias Hicks. The following is the Editors’ response to a newspaper report of his passing, in which they feel compelled to “speak ill of the dead” – because despite his being a sincerely reverent man, Elias Hicks had willingly transgressed fundamental religious doctrine, and thus he no longer deserved – even in death -- to be called a Quaker.

06 Advocate Feb 1830

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